Biotech has changed considerably from the historical uses in agriculture and food science, mainly due to molecular techniques. However, gene technology applied to traditional processes, like winemaking, allows more control over the outcome.
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Types of RNA
Lots of new research is being done using miRNA and siRNA, as small molecule treatments for various diseases. As a result, these small RNA pieces have become very popular topics in biotech, but for those of you who aren’t all that familiar with the nucleic acids, there are three major types of RNA within cells. The micro/si RNAs come from one of them, called messenger RNA (mRNA). Here’s the lowdown on the three types of larger RNA particles:
mRNA – are the direct product of transcription from DNA. Resulting mRNA sequences contain the codes, and are the template, for production of proteins in our cells.
rRNA – Ribosomal RNA come in various sizes that, combined, form complexes that promote translation of mRNA sequences to make proteins.
tRNA – Transfer RNA are small hairpin-shaped particles that carry around an amino acid at one end and have the anti-codon to an mRNA codon, at the other end. Individual tRNA bind to mRNA one at a time along the strand and, with the help of rRNA, ‘transfer’ their amino acid to the growing peptide chain.
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