Viral and Host Genetic Factors Regulating HIV-Associated CNS Disease (R01)

Executive Summary

Purpose. The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) and The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) solicit research grant applications to support studies focused on viral and host genetic factors , involved in HIV-1 Associated Neurocognitive Disorders (HAND) in the setting of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART). Recent clinical studies indicate that over 50% of HIV-infected patients manifest HAND despite receiving HAART. The focus of this initiative is to encourage studies to discover novel genetic paradigms that may account for the interactions between the virus, the host, and the therapeutic drugs in the central nervous system (CNS) that result in the pathogenesis, progression, and clinical manifestations of HAND. The use of state-of-the-art genetic approaches (including transcriptomics, phenomics, epigenomics, whole genome association studies, next generation sequencing, exome sequencing, & systems biology) to identify and validate (including in vitro models, animal models, & human samples) viral and host genetic factors which influence the pathophysiology of HAND are encouraged.

Key Dates

Release/Posted Date: July 29, 2010
Opening Date: December 6, 2010 (Earliest date an application may be submitted to
Letters of Intent Receipt Date(s): December 6, 2010
NOTE: On-time submission requires that applications be successfully submitted to no later than 5:00 p.m. local time (of the applicant institution/organization).
Application Due Date(s): January 6, 2011
Peer Review Date(s): March 2011
Council Review Date(s): May 2011
Earliest Anticipated Start Date(s): July 1, 2011

For more information, please visit:

What is genomics and post genomics?

Genomics encompasses everything from sequencing genomes, ascribing functions to genes, and studying the structure of genes (gene architecture).

Post-genomics takes these techniques further,  studying patterns in how genes are transcribed into messenger RNA, the chemical that carries the instructions for forming proteins (transcriptomics), in the way genes are expressed as proteins (proteomics), and in how they influence the chemicals that control our cellular biochemistry and metabolism (metabolomics).

By studying an individual’s entire genome, we can see which genes are active at particular times and under different environmental conditions, and see how these affect outward characteristics.

The United States is a major center for genomics research and development, which means many professionals from overseas study and work in genomics in America.

For more information, please visit the National Human Genome Research Institute and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention genomics page.

For more information, Please visit:

What is Genomics?

Genomics is the study of the genomes of organisms. The field includes intensive efforts to determine the entire DNA sequence of organisms and fine-scale genetic mapping efforts.

The field also includes studies of intragenomic phenomena such as heterosis, epistasis, pleiotropy and other interactions between loci and alleles within the genome. In contrast, the investigation of the roles and functions of single genes is a primary focus of molecular biology or genetics and is a common topic of modern medical and biological research. Research of single genes does not fall into the definition of genomics unless the aim of this genetic, pathway, and functional information analysis is to elucidate its effect on, place in, and response to the entire genome’s networks.

For the United States Environmental Protection Agency, “the term “genomics” encompasses a broader scope of scientific inquiry associated technologies than when genomics was initially considered. A genome is the sum total of all an individual organism’s genes. Thus, genomics is the study of all the genes of a cell, or tissue, at the DNA (genotype), mRNA (transcriptome), or protein (proteome) levels.”

Genomics was established by Fred Sanger when he first sequenced the complete genomes of a virus and a mitochondrion. His group established techniques of sequencing, genome mapping, data storage, and bioinformatic analyses in the 1970-1980s.

A major branch of genomics is still concerned with sequencing the genomes of various organisms, but the knowledge of full genomes has created the possibility for the field of functional genomics, mainly concerned with patterns of gene expression during various conditions.

The most important tools here are microarrays and bioinformatics. Study of the full set of proteins in a cell type or tissue, and the changes during various conditions, is called proteomics.

For more information, please visit: